Kos, the second largest island of the Dodecanese chain, is known for its pleasant climate and fertile soil. The island has was first settled in 3000 BC. By the 4th century, Kos was a very strong trading power in the region; it remained in this powerful position for many years before experience a long steady decline after the arrival of Romans in 130 BC. Hippocrates, the doctor, brought the island fame as well.
The Knights of St John ruled here after 1315, and then Turks governed from 1522 to 1912. Italian occupation followed, then the Germans captured the island in 1945. The island was finally unified with Greece in 1948.

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